Photographer: Tomohiro Ohsumi/Bloomberg via Getty Images.
Bill Gates predicted a pandemic in 2015. How was he able to do that is anyone’s guess, however, the Sabian symbol of his Moon at 8 Aries 15 knows why.
ARIES 9 A crystal gazer This is a symbol of man’s capacity for bringing an entire universe within the purview of his mind. There are higher faculties of human understanding, but as no more than the illimitable possibilities of personal experience in the realms of potentiality. Implicit is the concept of the world and the individual as irrevocably in partnership, each reflecting the other and thereby providing a foreview of every possible mood or situation. The keyword is ACUTENESS. When positive, the degree is consummate insight in planning the course of events or organizing them in the light of immediate convenience, and when negative, an idle curiosity and a surrender of all reality to the vagaries of the moment.
A crystal gazer sees the future, and the humanitarian work Gates is doing, puts him in a position to participate in the solution to the catastrophic position the world is experiencing with the Coronavirus pandemic.
Gates got his start with his genius in creating Microsoft. It made him a billionaire, and his Sharp Destiny aspect formed by Jupiter and Saturn in square, offered him the opportunity to live up to his highest potentials.
Progressed Mercury is coming “out of the dark” to meet the 7th house cusp where there will be more direct communication from him with others, especially in terms of interviews concerning the subjects with which he is engaged. Simultaneously, transits Jupiter and Pluto come to the light in the same location to bring profound possibilities as well as direct challenges to his intent. There have been attacks on his character and credibility and even outright lies about his creating the Coronavirus himself and launching it out to the public.
Truth is that Gates has been working hard for decades in his own Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, designed to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. In developing countries, it focuses on improving people’s health and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. (1)
Marc Edmund Jones, in his Essentials of Astrological Analysis, defines the Sharp Destiny in square aspect as follows.
JUPITER AND SATURN IN A SQUARE ASPECT, indicate an ordering of life’s fundamental motives, through which the native usually suffers very immediate consequences of the least neglect or abuse of his own potentials. He finds he must fight continually for the ideals in which he has come to take the most consistent interest, and also learns that his conscious well-being is wholly dependent on the moral struggles in which he becomes involved almost inevitably at every stage of his experience. If he does not relish the days in which he seems torn to pieces in self-uncertainty, he must discover ways to tear himself apart deliberately, and in equally painful fashion, on the behalf either of some cause of real significance or some conception that he can dramatize through his own being. Personal existence under this configuration can become either great opportunity, or else a gradual disintegration of the soul in the very core of itself.
Gates has been working under this influence of the Sharp Destiny for years and has mastered not only the chance to prove himself capable of achievement but has brought the rest of the world along with him by his magnanimous contribution in the digital sphere and in the field of health worldwide.
Any astrologer looking at the natal horoscope of Ruth Bader Ginsburg would be able to suggest her final days were coming close. The most obvious base-note is transit Pluto slowing to station opposite her progressed and natal Pluto just 17 days before her passing.
At the same time, progressed Mars was making a conjunction with natal Jupiter. Both planets occasionally are connected with someone’s time of death. Transit Mars also stationary just seven days prior, supported the tensions of stationary Pluto as it made its conjunction with progressed Uranus. The transits interacting with progressions and both aspecting the natal chart are key in the manifestation of significant events.
The Sabian Symbol degree for Pluto’s station on October 5, 2020, is 23 Capricorn 29 on October 5, 2020. The symbol, Two awards for bravery in war, gives great insight in a few words that honor the career of a diligent soul dedicated to women’s rights and common equality among all.
CAPRICORN 23, Two awards for bravery in war. This is a symbol of man’s resourcefulness in developing new areas of experience on the practical side, and of his genius for dramatizing the fruits of an everyday aliveness and thereby stimulating a broadened self-expenditure. The continual effort of an idealistic leadership to hold social and political gains demands an exaltation of personal vision and character, and in the course of time, every individual is brought to a broader understanding of his fellows. The goal of living becomes a preservation of values. The keyword is RECOGNITION. When positive, the degree is the social stewardship which demands a continual self-dedication, and when negative, strutting self-exploitation.
Although this symbol is shared with all humanity at the time of Pluto’s station, it defines some individual’s character more than others. This it does with Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The first official case of COVID-19, was a 55-year-old from Wuhan China, diagnosed on November 17, 2019. (1)
Astrologers anticipated events of great magnitude to develop near the time of the exact conjunction of Saturn to Pluto on January 12, 2020, when it completed and commenced once again its continuous thirty-four to thirty-eight-year cycle. The aggressiveness of the insidious coronavirus conveniently reflects the combined profile of these two notoriously feared planets. Their slow orbital movement allows a wide time-orb of influence for a significant phenomenon to emerge in correspondence to its conjunction. The illness first appeared in the news during the third week of November 2019 as SARS-CoV-2. For slow-moving planets, the two-month leeway for a manifestation of the conjunction is acceptable when comparing astrological events with their earthly counterparts.
The two formidable planets have varying speeds that create a syncopated slow-dance to the rhythm of retrograde and direct motions throughout 2020. As the year progresses, Jupiter joins in as it approaches its new transit-cycle with Saturn commencing on December 21, 2020. Jupiter weaves in and out of conjunctions with Saturn and Pluto during the year and will merge for its 3rd and final conjunction with Pluto at the time of the US presidential elections in early November.
Saturn, aligning its forces with Pluto at the January conjunction, exacerbated an otherwise normal display of disease often identified by the ringed planet, and as a result of this ominous partnership, the world was brought to its knees. Pluto naturally defies constraints and endows stealthy microbes with free-rein. The planet rules microscopic realms and its invisible characteristics have promoted numerous theories attempting to track the origin of the virus. (2)
With the number of cases worldwide topping over a million and a quarter, with an accompanying 70,000 deaths (as of April 5, 2020), the result is continuous global fear, anxiety, and panic, which are all the combined negative attributes of Saturn and Pluto. As the ubiquitous virus continues on its trek across the globe, an astrological picture gives revealing insights. The chart most likely to yield planetary connections with the pandemic should be one that adequately represents an entire world population. The inaugural chart of the United Nations (UN) is a good candidate because the organization is comprised of 193 countries out of a global count of 195. (3) This group of nations first pledged their affiliation on October 24, 1945, and it’s current functioning as a representative body gives the chart validity.
There is a strong tie between the Saturn-Pluto conjunction and the UN chart. Shown with a red arrow in chart #1 is an opposition aspect applying from the exact transit-conjunction of January 12th to the UN natal conjunction of Mars-Saturn. The transit-conjunction also was opposite natal Mercury in the chart of the United States in January 2020, however, the more powerful indication lies with the chart of all nations, since it is a worldwide crisis of which the United States is only a part. But the activated Mercury in the US chart does indicate why America was hit so hard. Mercury’s decision-making process, as far as simple procedures to take in containing the virus, has been confusing at best and has sparked controversy and polarization of approaches that confound the situation. This may be in part because the US has not dealt with a catastrophic pandemic since the Spanish flu of 1918 that originated in the state of Kansas.
Li Wenliang – the Whistleblower
An integral part of the story of the coronavirus includes the life and horoscope of ophthalmologist Li Wenliang, the physician and whistleblower who notified his colleagues in a private group on WeChat social media platform concerning the sudden outbreak of a virus at the Wuhan Central Hospital in Wuhan, China. Li’s concern was that patients were exhibiting severe symptoms similar to those displayed by the SARS virus that infected 8,098 people and killed 774 worldwide in 2003. Li’s leaked warnings alarmed the Chinese government, who sent police out on January 3rd to reprimand and force him to sign a statement that he was “making false comments on the internet.” The Chinese Communist Party apparently was set to do a coverup of what only was the beginning of a coming worldwide pandemic.
Not long after, Li himself contracted the insidious illness while performing an eye operation on a patient who was later found to have been infected by the coronavirus. He was hospitalized and rapidly succumbed to the disease on February 7, 2020.* Li’s natal chart is shown in chart #2, with his progressions and transits of the day of his death in the outer two wheels. He was 33 years old when he was officially pronounced dead on February 7th. There was confusion over the actual time of death and the procedures that led up to it. Millions of Chinese citizens had been tracking updates on his condition, that when his death was announced, caused shock-waves and disdain throughout both professional and lay communities.
His horoscope shows progressed Venus had been in a conjunction with natal Pluto; an indication that something rather deep was transpiring, and the progressed Sun was leaving its conjunction with natal Venus, another indication of the finalization of personal affairs. Other than transit Mars passing by progressed and natal Uranus, there are very few traditional transits of import.
Transit event-chart #3, however, shows a distinct connection with Li’s death by the transit Moon’s position exact on the 8th house cusp The Moon at the door of the house of transitions, with its ultimate transition being death, shows an appropriate placement to indicate his physical expiration. The Moon, at 13 Cancer 33, sheds light on the deeper meaning of his acts and sacrifice through its revealing Sabian symbol. He was a young man with an old soul on a mission that unfortunately was cut short. The words in the description highlighted in bold give stark testimony to his contribution to society.
CANCER 14 A very old man facing a vast dark space to the northeastThis is a symbol of the immeasurable reaches of past experience as a strengthening of the human spirit for its immediate destiny, and of the eternal rebirth through which man may discover that present aspiration and future achievement are without the slightest limitation in any terms of events to come. Here is an absoluteness of self as a completeness of expectation. There are no dark moments of outlook that cannot yield inspiration or assurance. The keyword is SANCTION. When positive, the degree is a highly effective enlistment of deeper and hidden elements of life for some momentary end, and when negative, lack of purpose and utter chaos in understanding.
The Sabian Symbol for Jupiter at 14 Capricorn 55 at the other end of the dynamic polarity is also revealing. The symbol literally describes a hospital scene that clearly reflects Li’s actual workplace. The sentence in bold font explains the randomness and capricious nature of the native’s sacrifice, and the positive of the degree reveals his heroic potentials.
CAPRICORN 15 Many toys in the children’s ward of a hospital This is a symbol of the inescapable richness of life in any normal manifestation of itself, here given emphasis through its ample rewards on the social and ideal side. There are physical and psychological limitations which come to all humankind without apparent reason, and which often seem a travesty of divine justice, but they are always an unrealized opportunity for a deeper fellowship. Experience is real in its fruits, rather than in the means to its ends. The keyword is ABUNDANCE When positive, the degree is man’s ability to develop the real potentialities of himself and his fellows despite every transient accident of circumstance, and when negative, hypocritical sympathy and childish self-pampering.
Transits Saturn and Pluto
The Saturn-Pluto conjunction clearly identifies Saturnian individuality within the Plutonian collective. Saturn’s capacity for drawing boundaries created the measures that each country dictated to its citizens that included closing bars and restaurants and instructing residents to stay home and avoid large social gatherings to which Pluto is associated.
This powerful and extremely tense Saturn-Pluto configuration will remain effective throughout 2020, as these dominating planetary actors station (4) to retrograde; reversing their direction and meaning from time to time during the year. In fact, the effects of what Saturn and Pluto brought to humanity with their conjunction in January may not only continue to manifest throughout the remainder of the year but perhaps even until 2023, at least for the United States, while Pluto completes its 248-year cycle return in the US chart.
At present, Pluto will station-retrograde on April 26, 2020, at 25 Capricorn, and Saturn will do the same on May 11th at 1 Aquarius 57. Transit stations indicate an intense release of planetary energy that requires a compulsory and critical regrasp of the immediate situation. Station’s readdress astrological trends and the present high number of COVID-19 cases may reverse along with the retrograde, and bring with it the possibility of remission in some areas of the US. (5) As well, cures for ailments are often discovered on retrogrades.
Pluto has already begun slowing down for its station in late April, encouraging a decrease of developing cases in the state of New York, the area with a higher death rate than any other place in the world. It is tempting to read premature positives into changes in planetary directions, and the late Dr. Marc Edmund Jones reminds us that “Astrology is the science of probability.” Stations are markers for imminent change on the horizon near the particular dates upon which they fall, but they should be suggestions, not hard predictions.
Chart #4 is the inaugural chart for New York City. (6) It reveals that the high number of coronavirus cases and fatalities is due in part by the Moon degree’s close association with the January 2020 Saturn-Pluto conjunction occurring at 23 degrees Capricorn. The City’s natal Moon, circled in red, is located within orb of that point and is also conjunct the US natal chart’s Pluto that is currently moving toward its monumental Return.
As Saturn slows to station-retrograde soon after Pluto, the reminder to shelter-in-place and keep at a social distance, continues for the United States. Saturn is the planet that points to the cover-up and condemnation of whistleblowers by China, the slow to declare a world-crisis by the World Health Organization, and in the US, the Trump administration’s months of denials that the virus was a real threat, and for its slow response to hospital requests for testing, personal protective equipment and ventilators. Containment and mitigation are Saturn’s methods of controlling Pluto’s otherwise unstoppable spread of the disease. Although “herd” immunity has been suggested by some “experts” as the natural way to ultimately conquer the disease, very few individuals are willing to risk their health or their lives by participating in that method of control, considering the aggressiveness of this killer virus.
Transits Venus and Jupiter
The US economy is also due for more fluctuation, with transit Venus coming to station-retrograde two days after Saturn on May 13th at 21 Gemini 50. The station will be conjunct President Trump’s natal Sun and will set off its natal opposition with the Moon. This will intensify the tension concerning his personal yet public image, and also will put pressure on his hopes to open the US economy by putting people back to work. The issue of his own finances takes front stage as well when on May 12th the Supreme Court will hold a hearing concerning the release of his tax returns and financial records.
In an interview on April 10th with MSNBC’s news anchor Brian Williams, the respected director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Dr. Anthony Fauci, (7) stated that he hopes that November could see some normality return. That projection parallels with the Jupiter transit making its final conjunction with Pluto in the early part of that month. The Greater Benefic may manifest in a more positive manner in November, than when it first made its rendezvous with Pluto in March, when it greatly expanded the number of those stricken with the virus, especially in New York and other hard-hit cities and states. In other parts of the world, Jupiter had a kinder effect by lessening the spread, with some countries attempting to normalize and go back to work.
Transit Pluto Return
For the United States, the Pluto Return plays a major role in the pandemic. The Spanish flu that devastated the world, lasting from 1918 to 1920, was similar in its challenges with what we are experiencing during the present coronavirus crisis. Pluto will continue on its journey for the next three years, completing its Return in 2023.
These stressful and unprecedented times call out from each of us a deeper understanding of the requirements of Saturn as the planet of individual, self-conscious awareness, and of Pluto as the representative of the greater collective to which we are all a part.
Social Distancing has become the moniker of our times, with Saturn marking boundaries within our extended social arena. Each citizen is now called to be responsible for the care and welfare of all. More than ever before, we are our brothers’ and sisters’ keepers.
6. Source of New York Horoscope, https://www.astrotheme.com/astrology/Manhattan,_New_York_(New_York)
7. A member of the White House coronavirus task force. Discovered the AIDS virus, and participated in the development of the cure. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Fauci
* February 7, 2020, is the date of Li Wenliang’s death from the coronavirus. The first death from the coronavirus in the United States was on February 6, 2020, in San Francisco, California. Sara Cody and other health professionals were monitoring the new virus and were the first to pronounce the “Stay at Home” order in the US. Their first initiative was to keep crowds down to less than 100 persons.
The Sabian Symbol, A woman and two men on a bit of land facing south was the symbol stimulated in Donald Trump’s horoscope, by transit Saturn in opposition to his natal Saturn. On the days when the aspect was exact, one manifestation of it was the January 15, 2020 interview of liberal media host Rachel Maddow with Lev Parnas. He, along with Igor Fruman, was charged in a four-count indictment alleging that each defendant conspired to violate the ban on foreign donations and contributions in connection with federal and state elections. They were both involved with Rudy Giuliani in the scandal involving Trump’s scheme to pressure the newly elected Ukraine President, Zelensky, to announce an investigation of both Joe and Hunter Biden, as well as other probes to make it appear that Uranine, rather than Russia, interfered with the 2016 US presidential elections. Bottom-line, Parnas numerously stated that Trump and others were in the loop; that he knew full well and directed the behind-the-scenes “errand” led by Rudy Giuliani.
It is not fully known why Lev Parnas agreed to an interview with Maddow, however, his conversation with her corroborated all other evidence which was uncovered in the House of Representatives that led to the impeachment of President Donald Trump. The two men in the photograph are Lev Parnas on the far left, and his attorney, Joseph Bondy at the center, and Maddow on the right.
CANCER 24 A woman and two men on a bit of sunlit land facing south This is a symbol of the soul’s necessary decisiveness in the basic allegiances of life, here emphasized in the terms of practical or everyday relations. There must be a mediation between the competing demands for immediate attention to various transient needs, and for some consistent or over-all goal which will bring an individual’s efforts into a cohesive pattern. The inner capacities must be disciplined continually for the sake of a plethora of outer opportunities. The keyword is INCEPTION. When positive, the degree is an unusual gift for organizing and exploiting the self’s potentials, and when negative, a devastating sense of ineptitude and estrangement from reality.
The transit Saturn opposite its natal position in Trump’s chart corresponded with his impeachment by the US House of Representatives. The interview with Maddow most likely was spurred on by Parnas in response to Trump’s denial that he knew him. Other national and worldwide events also correspond with the transit Saturn opposition. Deaths including suicides at the border with Mexico, deaths and displacements of the Sirian Kurds at the border with Turkey, and Ukrainian soldiers dying in their fight against Russia’s invasion of their country are among them. The focus of impeachment doesn’t include these events but are the tragic collateral from Trump’s mishandling of foreign affairs.
Andrew Cuomo is the Governor of the state of New York. When the coronavirus hit his state, Cuomo “did the numbers” by comparing what was happening in his region with how countries abroad experienced the pandemic. He was frustrated with the lack of quick response to the needs for all types of medical supplies and by his outspoken condemnation of the slow response by the federal government, things began to change and eventually moved forward.
Cuomo was the first to mention publically that although there was an abundance of test kits, there was a lack of follow-through on receiving the results from federal laboratories. After days of “pounding” the Trump administration, and communicating directly with him, the state laboratories Cuomo wanted to mobilize were finally freed to do so.
The chart for Andrew Cuomo is missing the time of birth, leaving the placement of the Moon and the location of planets through the houses questionable. The powerful dynamic that is active in the chart, that puts Cuomo in a place of leadership, is his progressed Neptune, two years in the formation of an intensifying station-retrograde (Figure 2). Neptune moves slowly and can identify pertinent events that possibly take place a year or more outside of the actual station.
Authoritative is a keyword for Neptune, for which Cuomo has shown great capacity. Neptune is a planet closely associated with the medical field. It rules hospitals and healthcare in general and works in partnership with Uranus as the planetary pair of Significance.
Transit Uranus is in opposition to progressed Neptune, which can be seen by the arrow pointing from the proposed wheel from the 2nd house to the 8th. Cuomo is the surrogate leader of New York state and his birth potentials extend to the people under his administration. The tension of an opposition aspect well-describes the awareness of the magnitude and critical concern felt by both the Governor and the people to whom he is responsible.
The Sabian Symbol for the Neptune station at 5 degrees Scorpio is A massive rocky shore.
The symbol reflects the immediate situation faced by all New Yorkers.
This is a symbol of the dependability of the physical universe whenever man holds the center of reality within himself and uses the static constituents in nature as a sustainment for his essentially dynamic being. Implicit in the symbolism is the need for a direct and continual attention to the overall interests of the self at every point in life. Here is an exaltation of pure experience in its eternal and universal lineaments. The keyword is STABILIZATION. When positive, the degree is a poised spirit and a firmness of personality which enables every individual to prepare himself and his fellows for any possible contingency, and when negative, blind stubbornness or unreasoning conservatism.
The Sabian Symbol for transit Uranus at 5 degrees Taurus, A widow at an open grave,is also alarmingly enlightening.
This is a symbol of the impermanence of physical things whenever man permits reality to come to center in the static representation, and thus neglects the creative contribution through which he has responsibility for the larger whole. Implicit in the reversed symbolism is the need for an inner and constant return to every enduring value achieved by the self, and for a complete and immediate release from all outworn elements of experience. The keyword is REORIENTATION. When positive, the degree is man’s genius for personal aplomb or an effective transcendence of disappointment and delay in an ever-spiraling self-discovery, and when negative, surrender to frustration or descent to ineptitude.
The coming progressed Mars trine Pluto, indicated in Figure 3 will be exact on April 9, 2020. This may bring some good news, however, the progressed Sun squaring Mars is an aspect that will just be starting, showing that stressful circumstances will continue in spite of when the Mars trine takes hold. The Uranus transit will still loom over the situation, with the station on August 16th, only to retrograde back to its opposition to progressed Neptune. It will retrograde until its station-direct mid-January 2021, just two degrees of separation from the tense and formidable aspect that is associated with the collective challenge to New York and its besieged population.
The vibrant and outspoken Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, from the 14th district of New York, has Jupiter and Saturn in an opposition aspect in her natal chart. This is a Sharp Destiny that differs somewhat from the one defined by a square between the two significators which has been discussed in the analysis of the charts of Anthony BourdainJohn McCainJupiter and Saturn in square aspect animate a heightened moral struggle that encourages the native to align their behavior in accordance with principles of right action. The same indicators in opposition aspect, as seen in the horoscope of Ocasio-Cortez, is described in the following passage found on page 124 of the Essentials of Astrological Analysis by Marc Edmund Jones:
Jupiter and Saturn in Opposition aspect indicate an ordering of life’s fundamental motives, through which the native is usually compelled to dramatize himself continually in the presence of his fellows, at least if he wishes to participate with them in any course of everyday experience. This necessity often tends to throw a given lifetime into two entirely separate periods, with the latter revealing greater depth and continuity of realization, as perhaps an unsuspected consequence of the mirroring it has given itself through some more superficial role-playing in the former. There may be either a prodigal expenditure of the self’s resources, with their ultimate recapture in a refinement of soul, or a moral vacillation that accentuates every weakness of character, and so encourages a surrender to a final and hopeless ineptitude.
The activist and unapologetic socialist candidate Ocasio-Cortez, in a surprising upset defeated Joe Crowley, the ten-term Democrat Caucus Chair, in the midterm election primaries held on June 26, 2018.
It is known that Bob Dylan and Joan Baez were very attracted to each other for various reasons, including their political views and activism as well as having a personal relationship that fell just short of a legal tie in marriage.
There are a few Astrofacts that show the astrological reasons for their attraction, and here listed are what could be considered the major aspects that are the cosmic influence on them, as aspects manifest in the lives of so many other celebrity couples, such as Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, Kathreen Hepburn and Spencer Tracy, to name just a few.
The most powerful magnetic factor in the chart is identified by their exact Sun/Moon conjunction. Here is where the tie has its most emotional response and the one that draws the couple to feel and believe they have a destiny together, or that they are continuing a purpose that was founded in perhaps a previous life cycle.
They loved each other’s ideas, shown in the close dynamic between Dylan’s Mercury (mentality) and Baez’s appreciative Venus near his ascendant. Baez’s Mars is opposite Dylan’s Sun and this profoundly stimulates the Sun/Moon conjunction all the more, and definitely adds kick to their chemistry, with an extra dose of physical passion.
Sometimes a horoscope tells a fascinating story, and this is what we find in the chart of Robert Swan Mueller III, the man who was appointed as special counsel to investigate Russia’s interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
An interpretation of natal potentials is compromised when the time of birth is unknown because the Moon degree and the positions of the planets throughout the houses are undetermined, and thus fall short of giving sufficient clues for an accurate interpretation. But there are planetary configurations defined by Marc Edmund Jones, found in his Essentials of Astrological Analysis, that are not dependent on the time of birth, and can yield information that is quite revealing.
One of these possibilities is the T-Cross as a Focal Determinator. But its validity is questioned because one of the prongs of the Cross would be the Moon, which moves swiftly through the degrees in an entire day, and may or may not be in orb of an opposition to create a T-Cross. However, when checking the Moon’s sign and degree placement, throughout the 24 hours of the day of birth, it shows the Moon’s transit stays within close proximity of its 12 and a half degree allowable orb in the possible opposition to Neptune. This ultimately brings Saturn into Point Focus, since it stands in perpendicular aspect to the opposition.
Astrologers consider that aside from the frustrations, delays, and disappointments for which Saturn is known, it is also the planet of integrity, responsibility, maturity, and conscientiousness, and so suggests a host of positive characteristics that can imbue an individual with extraordinary and honorable stature. These constructive expressions of Saturn, explain why Mueller is known for his spotless reputation as a Marine Corps officer during the Vietnam War, who received a Bronze Star for heroism, and a Purple Heart. He spent his civilian years in both private and public service, engaging in a stellar career that included 12 years as director of the FBI.